Concerning this point, James Coram remarked as follows:
“Some have inferred inasmuch as the word “injured” is used instead of “killed,” that this fact is strong indication or perhaps even proof that the second death is not fatal. It is supposed that the second death must therefore somehow be reference to a second life time, albeit to a lifetime which for many will involve much “injury.” This supposition, however, is fallacious and gratuitous.
“Injure” (adiked, un-just) is the verb of the noun “injustice” (adikia, UN-jusT-ness). The term “injury” speaks of “perceived injustice.” Whether an action, in higher sense, is actually unjust or not, is not in view. An “injury” speaks of an act of “injustice” merely from the standpoint of the one who is injured, with respect to the harm or damage which the injury entails. Thus any act which results in harm or damage constitutes an “injury.”
Whether the damage is trivial or tremendous, fleeting or fatal, where damage ensues, injury occurs. For example, while in one instance injuries sustained from an automobile accident may only be minor, in another they may well be fatal. Injury is sustained in both instances; indeed the fatal accident is far more injurious than the one involving only minor injuries.
While the “injury” sustained by those who are cast into the lake of fire (in Revelation 20:14,15) will be fatal (since to these the lake of fire is the second death), it will not be permanent. We may be certain that this is the case, for, at the consummation, death will be abolished and all will be vivified, that God may be All in all. God is the Saviour of all mankind, and this includes all who enter the second death.”
In Revelation 20:11-15 (NET) we read the following:
Then I saw a large white throne and the one who was seated on it; the earth and the heaven fled from his presence, and no place was found for them. And I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne. Then books were opened, and another book was opened—the book of life. So the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to their deeds. The sea gave up the dead that were in it, and Death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and each one was judged according to his deeds. Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death—the lake of fire. If anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, that person was thrown into the lake of fire.
The belief of most Christians is that no one involved in the judgment we find described in Rev. 20:11-15 – i.e., the “great white throne” judgment – will be “found written in the scroll of life.” It is commonly assumed that everyone being judged at this time will end up being “cast into the lake of fire.” However, there’s good reason to believe that the names of some – perhaps many – human beings WILL, in fact, be found written in the scroll of life. Consider, for example, the righteous Gentiles referred to in Scripture who lived before God brought the nation of Israel into existence (such as Abel, Enoch, Noah, Melchizedek, Job, etc.). Since these righteous people were not Israelites, they will not be among those raised by Christ at the “former resurrection” (Rev. 20:5) to enjoy an allotment in the land of Israel during the eon to come (i.e., the “millennial reign” of Christ). However, we have no scriptural reason to deny that they’ll be among those judged at the great white throne judgment. And since Hebrews 11 leaves us with little doubt that they will have an allotment on the new earth during the last and greatest eon, we can conclude that their names are, in fact, written in the “scroll of life.” The people in this category of people (i.e., righteous pre-Israelites) are not, therefore, going to be “injured by the second death.” And if that’s the case, then the same can be said for righteous non-Israelites living in subsequent time periods (including those alive today, who aren’t members of the body of Christ).
This is a point that needs to be emphasized. The purpose of the great white throne judgment is not to make anyone worthy of (or qualified for) any particular future blessing. Rather, its purpose will be to determine – and make manifest to all who will be present – who will get to enjoy the blessing of eonian life on the new earth, and who won’t get to enjoy this eonian blessing (and who must therefore come under the jurisdiction of the “second death”). Those whose names will be found written in the scroll of life (apparently by virtue of their overall good deeds, or overall lack of evil deeds) will receive the allotment referred to in Rev. 21:1-7. Those whose names aren’t found written in the scroll of life (apparently by virtue of their overall evil deeds) will, we’re told, be “cast into the lake of fire.” This sentence will not involve the torment of any mortal human who must undergo it; rather, it will simply involve the termination of their life (just as their life had previously been terminated when they died their FIRST death). Since those not found written in the scroll of life are those who won’t qualify for eonian life on the new earth – and since eonian life on the new earth will, of course, involve being alive during this future time period (and enjoying all of the blessings that the living will get to enjoy at this time) – it only makes sense that those not found written in the scroll of life would be sentenced to death. And the lake of fire is simply the means by which this sentence will be carried out.
There are some who, on the basis of what Paul wrote in Ephesians 2:7, may be inclined to object to this understanding of the great white throne judgment because of the lack of divine grace that this judgment would involve. However, this verse in no way contradicts the view that the judgment described in Rev. 20:11-15 is not intended to manifest God’s grace. Although the “oncoming eons” referred to in this verse will be a time when the “transcendent riches of God’s grace” will be on display, it will be through God’s kindness to those in the body of Christ that God will be displaying this grace. Since Paul was not saying that God will be displaying the transcendent riches of his grace in his kindness to all (or even most) human beings during the oncoming eons, there is simply no reason to think that Ephesians 2:7 is somehow inconsistent with what has been said concerning Rev. 20:11-15. Does this mean that no one else will be receiving and enjoying, to some degree, God’s kindness and grace during the eons to come? No. God’s grace will, to a much greater extent than in any past eon, be displayed in his kindness to the inhabitants of the earth during the oncoming eons as well. This will, of course, be especially true for Israel, but even the nations will be the recipients God’s kindness during this time (primarily during the last eon). But what needs to be emphasized here is that Paul did not have in mind Israel or humanity in general when he wrote Ephesians 2:7.
But what does it mean for death and hades to be “thrown into the lake of fire?” I’ve heard it objected that, since “death and hades” couldn’t literally be cast into a physical place, we ought to conclude that the lake of fire is not a literal place. Although I don't doubt the sincerity of those raising this sort of objection, I can’t help but question their consistency. On the one hand, they view as an insurmountable problem the idea that two intangibles could be described as being “cast into” a literal lake of fire. On the other hand, they don’t seem to have any problem at all with literal, physical human persons being “given up” by two intangibles and then figuratively “cast into” a figurative “lake of fire.” In accord with this sort of reasoning, why should we believe that any literal human beings are in view in this passage at all? For how could literal, physical human persons exist “in” two intangible concepts? And how could such intangible concepts then “give up” the literal, physical human persons who were “in” them?